A Review of the Government Programme's Cultural Policy in Finland
The era of National Coalition cultural policy
The president of the republic of Finland Sauli Niinistö appointed Prime Minister Petteri Orpo's Government on June 20th, following prolonged government negotiations lasting about one and a half months. The right-wing Government consists of the Prime Minister’s party, National Coalition (Kokoomus, KOK), the Finns Party (Perussuomalaiset, PS), the Swedish People's Party of Finland (Suomen ruotsalainen kansanpuolue, RKP), and the Christian Democrats (Kristillisdemokraatit, KD). Orpo's government presented its programme to the Parliament, titled Strong and Committed Finland.[i] In this overview, we will examine the cultural policy objectives of the fresh government programme.
Strategic and comprehensive cultural policy
In recent decades, government programmes have become highly central political steering instruments in Finland. These programmes have been reformed to be strategic, theme-based, and to transcend administrative boundaries, as part of an administrative policy emphasizing the unity of the Finnish government and its ministries[ii]. The main cultural policy provisions of Orpo's government programme can be found in the section titled "Culture, Sports, Physical Activity and Youth" under the theme of "A nation of knowledge and competence". These themes correspond to the established policy areas of the Ministry of Education and Culture[iii] (opetus- ja kulttuuriministeriö, OKM). Besides the nominal cultural policy objectives, cultural aims are also included in other sections of the programme.
We identified cultural policy objectives specifically from the section (pp. 102–103) that addresses culture in the programme (we provide a detailed list of all objectives at the end of the overview). There are slightly fewer objectives compared to the previous programme of Sanna Marin's Government[iv] (2019–2023). Instead of individual development targets, the cultural policy objectives of Orpo's Government focus on broader priorities. These include themes such as the internationalization of culture, export and promotion of national brands, creative industries, social and unemployment security aspects of the cultural sector, culture in social and health care, children’s culture and youth culture, reading, copyright, and basic arts education.
Orpo's government programme does not propose new cultural policy initiatives but focuses on comprehensive goals, such as the cultural policy report to the Parliament due to be implemented during the government term and the "cross-administrative growth strategy for creative industries" to be developed in connection with the report. Essential for achieving these objectives is how the Government and administrative steering[v] of culture function as a whole. In the current steering system, the relationship between the strategic and theme-based goal setting of the government programme and practical implementation has been seen as problematic due to silo-like structures and practices[vi].
Cross-administrative collaboration including also cultural fields has been a goal in cultural policy implementation already for several decades. The experiences from the COVID-19 pandemic further emphasized the need to remove barriers between administrative sectors to promote culture more comprehensively and raised awareness of the essential role of creative industries as part of cultural production networks[vii].
In Orpo's government programme, emphasis is placed on cooperation between the Ministry of Education and Culture (OKM) and three other ministries central to cultural policy. With the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (ulkoministeriö, UM), the goal is to "promote the international recognition of Finnish arts, culture, and creative industries by improving the business conditions of Creative Finland[viii]." The aims are economic in particular as they will “create better opportunities for Finnish arts and creative companies to gain international recognition and reinforce the role of the cultural sector in our country branding” and “design schemes that fuel growth in the audiovisual sector and in other sectors, such as literature and music.”
In collaboration with the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health (sosiaali- ja terveysministeriö, STM), the aim is to "make more extensive use of culture, art, and physical activity in preventive healthcare and social welfare services" Between OKM and the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment (työvoima- ja elinkeinoministeriö, TEM), the government “will create permanent collaborative practices to coordinate measures promoting the vitality of the cultural and arts sectors together with parties and representatives working in the field."
Compared to the programme entries of Prime Minister Sanna Marin’s Government (2019–2023), cross-administrative cooperation is now emphasized even more concretely. The role of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (UM) is highlighted in interagency cultural policy, more directly in the next policy objective, for example: "We will create better opportunities for Finnish arts and creative companies to gain international recognition and reinforce the role of the cultural sector in our country branding." However, in many respects, cross-administrative collaboration is a continuity that extends beyond government terms and is a goal of the current public administration regime[ix]. For instance, even in the previous government term, in the fall of 2022, an Ambassador for Culture and Creative Industries was appointed to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs.
The reform of the administrative agency structure according to the “Final report of the Ministry of Education and Culture’s corporate governance project”[x] also affects key art and cultural agencies. The report envisions merging the Finnish Film Foundation[xi], the National Audiovisual Institute[xii], and the Arts Promotion Centre Finland (Taike)[xiii] into a specialized agency called Creative Finland. There has been support within Taike for the creation of an agency supporting creative industries, and the reform of educational administration is also outlined in the Ministry's performance plan. The administrative reform concerning culture also involves the creation of "clear impact criteria" for state grants as part of a digitalization project of state grants.
The National Coalition Party’s objectives dominate the cultural policy of the government programme
The future vision for art and culture published by the National Coalition Party before the parliamentary elections in the spring emphasizes the implementation of proposals already made in various programmes and strategies, rather than conducting additional investigations. This standpoint is also reflected in the government programme, where the cultural policy objectives correspond - at times even verbatim - to the objectives outlined in the National Coalition's vision. The National Coalition wanted to profile itself as the party of education and culture within the Government also by claiming the portfolio of the Minister of Science and Culture[xiv].
Among the cultural policy objectives of the other government parties, only those closely aligned with the National Coalition Party's objectives were included in the government programme. The National Coalition Party, Christian Democrats, and Swedish People's Party of Finland emphasized in their election programmes the need to address social and unemployment security issues in the cultural sector, as well as the situation of freelancers. The government programme includes goals for resolving problems related to social and unemployment security for cultural and creative professionals as part of a broader social security reform. The Government will also prepare a cultural policy report for the Parliament, which, except for the Finns Party, was a shared goal in the programmes of the government parties.
The promotion of children's culture, reading, cultural heritage, and the connection between culture and well-being, are widely shared cultural policy objectives across party lines, evident in the government programme.
A specific goal that refers to the Finns Party's cultural policy programme is the transmission of Finnish cultural heritage to new generations as part of the schools' educational mission (p. 83). Regarding schools and digital culture, the government plans legislative changes "that can more effectively restrict, for example, the use of mobile devices during the school day, thus enhancing students' focus on teaching" (p. 84). These entries mirror the cultural policy objectives of the Finns Party and the Christian Democrats.
The cultural provisions in the government programme also reflect administrative goals stemming from the Ministry of Education and Culture's government programme objectives, as well as reports such as Kulttuurin aika on nyt ja aina (Culture is always present).[xv] This report was prepared for rebuilding the Finnish cultural sector after the COVID-19 pandemic and also includes as an objective the preparation of a parliamentary cultural policy report. It has been noted before that the administration significantly influences the cultural objectives in the government programme; and with a partial exception of the Finns Party, Finnish political parties are generally committed to the prevailing cultural policy system.[xvi]
Notably, the government programme objectives do not include the expansion of tax deduction rights for private donations to individuals in the fields of science and art. The Association of Finnish Foundations, for instance, has supported the implementation of this tax deduction. This goal is not only included in the National Coalition Party's cultural vision but also the Ministry of Education and Culture's government programme objectives and the cultural future report.
Many government parties also address media policy in their cultural programmes. As a result, their perspective on cultural policy is often broader than the current administrative boundaries. The government programme's entries on the Finnish Broadcasting Company (Yleisradio, Yle) (p. 115) particularly resemble statements made by the Finns Party and the Christian Democrats in their programmes, suggesting that Yle's position, funding, and programming policies need to be critically evaluated.
Austerity policy for culture as well
The National Coalition Party's cultural vision highlights market demand and consumption: "We will increase people's purchasing power, so they have the opportunity to use cultural and creative services." Regarding direct support instruments, the government plans to expand the use of culture, leisure, and sports vouchers (p. 68). In contrast to the previous government's policy of allocating additional funding for education and culture, the direction under Orpo’s government is different. The review by officials at the Ministry of Finance was influential here.[xvii] This review proposed that several measures are needed to improve general government finances by at least nine billion euros over the next two parliamentary terms.
The government programme does not contain funding commitments for culture. However, at this stage, budget cuts have not been directly targeted at the actual budget allocation for arts and culture in the state budget. Overall, right-wing, and conservative goals emphasizing individual responsibility and market orientation are visible in the programme’s cultural policy as well.
The preparation of the state budget for the coming year is still ongoing, but according to the government programme, funding for liberal adult education as well as state subsidies from the Ministry of Education and Culture will be cut. The government has prioritized the goal of fiscal discipline over an increase in the cultural budget supported by several parties before the elections. Therefore, in terms of public funding, the government does not fulfill the cultural sector's desire for financial assistance in recovering from the pandemic years[xviii]. However, even the previous Government allocated very little funding for the cultural sector's recovery in the budget framework following pandemic crisis support, except for compensating for the decline in revenue from gambling operations.
Overall, a reduction of 125 million euros in state subsidies from the Ministry of Education and Culture is targeted by 2027. The exact allocation is still unclear, but according to the Minister of Culture, culture would be "well protected from cuts." It is a matter of upcoming political discussions and advocacy efforts to determine the targeting of these subsidy cuts.
According to the plan, state funding for liberal adult education and training will be reduced by twenty-five million euros, and student fees will be increased, potentially undermining equal educational opportunities across different parts of the country. Among the government parties, the Christian Democrats emphasized the importance of liberal adult education in their election programme. The Swedish People's Party of Finland, on the other hand, supported increasing the cultural budget to one percent. A long-term increase in the cultural budget was also mentioned in the National Coalition Party's objectives.
Finnish municipalities are important public supporters of cultural activities. In municipalities, the index break applied to municipal state subsidies affects libraries, basic arts education, and other cultural activities. Tightening municipal finances also affects theatre, museum, and orchestra sectors that receive state subsidy funding. Special grants distributed for cultural activities in sparsely populated rural areas in 2022–2023 will be discontinued following the cessation of funding by a parliamentary working group.
Value-added tax (VAT) is a key indirect, tax-related instrument in the arts and culture sectors as well. According to the government programme, the goods currently subject to the reduced 10 percent VAT rate (excluding newspapers and periodicals) will be raised to a 14 percent VAT rate (p. 237). This increase applies to goods such as books, sports services, and admission fees for cultural events.
From the perspective of cultural social and well-being impacts, it is noteworthy that the government programme proposes savings of a total of one hundred million euros for the "Subsidies to Communities and Foundations for Promoting Health and Social Well-being" allocation within the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. These grants have been distributed from gambling proceeds by the Funding Centre for Social Welfare and Health Organisations (STEA). According to the report of the cultural well-being cooperation group called Taiku3, culture was involved in a total of about 30 grant projects in 2023.[xix]
From intentions to concrete implementation: contradictions between promises and measures?
The government programme's entries are primary aims. Actual decisions with regulations and budgets will demonstrate concreteness. When assessing the future steps of Finnish cultural policy, it is important to look at both the overall government programme and eventually the parliamentary cultural policy report.
Contradictions between the cultural policy goals in the government programme and other entries have been highlighted by various stakeholders. The increase in the value-added tax rate has been speculated to accelerate the "downward slope of printed books and the post-pandemic difficulties of the theatre and film industry,"[xx] which contradicts with the emphasis in the government programme on the growth potential of culture and creative industries. Studies have shown that reduced value-added tax rates can decrease book prices and increase consumption[xxi], but the Government’s direction is the opposite. Therefore, the concerns of the book industry[xxii] are not addressed in the programme, even though parties have acknowledged the need to promote the Finnish language and develop a literature policy.
The treatment of cultural goods in terms of taxation and potential price increases can, in practice, weaken National Coalition’s emphasized consumer purchasing power in the cultural sector. For example, the Finnish Taxpayers' Association has criticized tax increases targeted at service and event industries which already suffered considerably during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The government programme includes recognition of the position of freelancers in the cultural and creative industries as part of solving issues related to social and unemployment benefits. However, somewhat contradictory, the requirement for the earnings-related daily allowance work requirement is extended, and work done with grants is not counted as employment. Currently, an unemployed person can earn 300 euros per month without affecting his or her unemployment security. However, also this earning opportunity is to be removed.
The current government programme's goals are quite general, leaving room for political implementation. Exceptions are proposed legislative reforms (basic art education and copyright) and the preparation of a cultural policy report. The latest government report for the parliament on the future of culture dates back to 2011. The forthcoming report has the potential to advance the cultural policy discussion on the societal significance of culture and the tasks of cultural policy, as well as offer proposals for concrete measures to develop the sector.
The recent government programme identifies the intersections and significance of cooperation and coordination between culture and other policy sectors in many ways. The programme emphasizes strengthening cross-border activities, such as in creative industries, promoting the well-being effects of culture, and advancing social security reform in the cultural field.
It is crucial to recognize the connections and relationships between different policy sectors and actions[xxiii], especially now that the government programme's goals are being implemented. Cuts in social policy and employment policy sectors are likely to also affect cultural issues. Globe Art Point has stated[xxiv] that the government programme's social security and immigration policies may harm cultural diversity and cultural exchange. Budget cuts in the social and health sector will affect the promotion of cultural well-being effects, which is changing, especially with the service structure reform of social welfare and health care and wellbeing services county reform. On the other hand, within the creative industries interest organizations, many positive elements in the government programme for the development of creative industries from a business perspective are recognized.
The core elements of the diverse arts and culture sector are of course artists making art[xxv], yet the government programme does not mention them at all. In part, this is due to a general tendency towards highlighting “creativity” instead of the arts.[xxvi] The emphasis on the internationalization and export promotion of Finnish art, culture, and creative industries in the programme requires having high-quality and unique offerings. Therefore, implementing the government programme's goals necessitates ensuring artists' working conditions for the future as well.
The nominal cultural policy goals from Orpo's government programme:
- The Government will draw up a report on cultural policy. In connection with the report, the Government will implement an intersectoral growth strategy for the creative industries.
- We will promote the international recognition of Finnish arts, culture, and creative industries by improving the business conditions of Creative Finland in cooperation with the Ministry for Foreign Affairs.
- We will create better opportunities for Finnish arts and creative companies to gain international recognition and reinforce the role of the cultural sector in our country's branding.
- We will design schemes that fuel growth in the audio-visual sector and other sectors, such as literature and music.
- To coordinate measures promoting the vitality of the cultural and arts sectors together with parties and representatives working in the field, the Government will create permanent collaborative practices between the administrative branches of the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment.
- The Government will enhance cooperation between the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. Among other objectives, these collaborative efforts aim to make more extensive use of culture, art, and physical activity in preventive healthcare and social welfare services.
- As part of the social security reform, the Government will solve problems related to social security and unemployment security among those working in the cultural and creative sectors. Particular attention will be paid to the position of freelancers.
- The Government will boost children’s and young people’s literacy. We will pursue the implementation of the literacy strategy and expand Lukuliike (The Reading Movement), the programme for promoting literacy among people of all ages.
- We will make Lukulahja lapselle (Reading gift to children) a permanent scheme, whereby maternity and child health clinics will give a book bag to every newborn baby.
- The Government will make children’s culture more easily accessible.
- The accessibility of library services will be ensured by making use of practices such as self-service checkouts and mobile libraries.
- We will adopt the compensation paid under the public lending right for e-books and advance the establishment of a national e-library.
- The Government will reform the legislation on basic education in the arts. The aim is to make access to teaching smoother, considering different fields of art.
- To make the copyright system more transparent and to make the legislation clearer and more readily understandable, the Government will assess the need for an overhaul of copyright legislation, considering the national room for manoeuvre. Regarding copyright legislation, the specific needs of Åland are assessed together with the Swedish authorities.
- We will assess the economic impacts of imposing a financial contribution obligation on on-demand audiovisual media services on the audiovisual market and the sector’s growth potential.
- The central government will contribute to projects aiming to build new cultural buildings of national importance or to renovate such existing buildings.
From youth work objectives
The Government will ensure that every child and young person can pursue at least one leisure activity of their choice. We will develop children’s and young people’s leisure activities in cooperation with leisure activity providers. Particular attention will be paid to children and young people who either do not have a leisure activity or who have dropped out. We will examine the overall picture of the structures and funding of leisure and club activities and ensure that the Finnish model for leisure activities complements the existing leisure activities field. We will assess the legislation on the Finnish model for leisure activities, including mapping the opportunities to support leisure activities during school holidays. The Government will increase the use of leisure activity vouchers in municipalities to expand meaningful recreational opportunities for children and young people.
Additional cultural objectives from other sections of the government programme
- The Government will expand the use of culture, leisure, and sports vouchers and create new ways to increase the physical activity of employees to improve wellbeing at work.
- The Government aims to clarify the agency structure within the administrative branch of the Ministry of Education and Culture, reduce overlapping administration and make the guidance and direction of agencies more effective in line with the Educational and Cultural Administration 2030 final report, taking into account the range of tasks of the current units.
- The Government will safeguard the preservation of cultural heritage using digitization
- The educational role of schools includes ensuring that Finnish cultural heritage is passed on to future generations. This also includes fostering school traditions, such as the spring and Christmas celebrations.
- We will make public the funding and the use of funds of the Finnish Broadcasting Company (YLE) within the framework of the Limited Liability Companies Act. YLE will set an example of openness and efficient use of funds. YLE’s independence and editorial neutrality will be strengthened. YLE’s duties, funding, and the independence of its supervision will be outlined in a parliamentary procedure. The Government will establish a parliamentary working group to assess YLE’s funding and its relationship to commercial media. The working group will also assess the need to amend the Act on the Finnish Broadcasting Company and to more clearly define YLE’s duties. The parliamentary working group will submit its report by the end of the 2024 spring session.
- The Government recognizes the importance of liberal adult education in increasing skills and competence and in enabling people to engage in leisure activities. The Government will increase the client’s financial contribution percentage to the cost of providing adult leisure activities in liberal adult education.
- The Government will support the rights of the Sami people to maintain and develop their languages and culture. The Government will promote constructive dialogue and cooperation with the Sami. The work of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission Concerning the Sami People will continue until the end of 2025. A government proposal on the Act on the Sami Parliament, based on the work carried out by the committee chaired by Permanent Secretary Timonen in cooperation with the Sami Parliament, will be submitted to Parliament by the end of 2023.
The economic and tax policy decisions related to culture in the government programme annex tables:
Ministry of Education and Culture grants: The level of discretionary government grants will be gradually reduced. A savings level of no more than EUR 75 million for 2027 will be considered in the 2026 government budget session. Savings target: EUR 125 million by 2027.
Liberal adult education: Central government funding will be reduced and student fees for liberal adult education will be increased accordingly. Central government funding will be reduced as follows: adult education centers EUR 12.5 m, study centers EUR 7 m, summer universities EUR 2 m, folk high schools EUR 2 m, and sports training centers EUR 1.5 m.
Subsidies for Health and Social Wellbeing Promotion: The level of discretionary government grants will be reduced. A savings level of no more than EUR 50 million will be considered in the 2026 government budget session. Overall savings of EUR 100 million by 2027.
Municipal State Subsidies: ‘Index brake’ 1 percentage point for 2024–2027. (Savings target: EUR 126 million by 2027).
VAT Rates: Transfer items currently subject to the reduced 10% VAT rate to 14%, excluding newspapers and periodicals. (Currently, items subject to the 10% VAT rate include books, sports services, movie screenings, television, and broadcasting compensation, as well as admission fees for cultural and entertainment events).
[i] A strong and committed Finland. Programme of Prime Minister Petteri Orpo's Government. https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/governments/government-programme#/ [accessed 21.8.2023].
[ii] The current Finnish Government comprises 12 ministries. Each ministry is responsible for the preparation of matters within its mandate and for the proper functioning of administration. See https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/government [accessed 15.8.2023].
[iii] See the areas of expertise within the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture: https://okm.fi/en/areas-of-expertise [accessed 15.8.2023].
[iv] https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/government/history/governments-and-ministers/report/-/r/m1/76 [accessed 15.8.2023].
[v] See Jakonen, O. (2022). Cultural policy in a strategic state. Steering and funding of art and culture asadministrative politics. Academic dissertation. University of Jyväskylä. https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/83842 [accessed 15.8.2023].
[vi] For example, see the report Impacts of culture and sports on wellbeing as part of the decision-making and guidance system (2023). https://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/164740/OKM_2023_16.pdf?sequence=7 [accessed 15.8.2023].
[vii] See Luonila, M., Renko, V., Jakonen, O., Karttunen, S., Kanerva, A. (2022). The effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the field of Finnish Cultural Industries: revealing and challenging policy structures. In Salvador, E., Navarrette, T., & Srakar, A. (toim.) Cultural Industries and the COVID-19 Pandemic: A European Focus. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003128274 [accessed 16.8.2023].
[viii] Creative Finland is a media and network part of creative economy governance and offering an insight into Finland’s creative economy. See https://www.creativefinland.org/about-us [accessed 15.8.2023].
[ix] See also e.g., Nanna Kann-Rasmussen (2023): Reframing instrumentality: from New Public Management to New Public Governance, International Journal of Cultural Policy, https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2023.2239262.
[x] The Ministry of Education and Culture launched a development project on 13 October 2021 that encompasses all agencies within the Ministry’s governance. In the programmeme, it is proposed that the structures of the educational and cultural administration be reformed so that, besides the Ministry, the administration would consist of five agencies instead of the current 11 agencies. See http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-263-816-8 [accessed 15.8.2023].
[xi] https://www.ses.fi/en/home-english/ [accessed 15.8.2023].
[xii] https://kavi.fi/en/ [accessed 15.8.2023].
[xiii] https://www.taike.fi/en [accessed 15.8.2023].
[xiv] https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/ministers/-/min/orpo/minister-of-science-and-culture [accessed 15.8.2023].
[xv] The working group proposes that during the government term beginning in 2023, a report on cultural policy that considers a broad range of issues concerning the creative industries and their related operational and financial responsibilities be submitted to Parliament. https://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-263-764-2 [accessed 15.8.2023].
[xvi] Jakonen, O. & Renko, V. (2019). Visions and continuity of cultural policy. A look into the 2019 parliamentary election programmes of Finland’s political parties and their cultural political special programmes. The Cultural Policy Research Yearbook, 4(1), 36–51. https://doi.org/10.17409/kpt.83622 [accessed 15.8.2023].
[xvii] Ministry of Finance (2023). Expenditure and structural survey of general government finances – Summary. https://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/handle/10024/164782 [accessed 15.8.2023].
[xviii] The working group wished to increase the financial resources for arts and culture in the national budget (class 29.80) to one per cent of the budget expenditure by 2027. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-263-764-2 [accessed 16.8.2023].
[xix] Taiku3, was appointed for the term 9.4.2020–15.2.2023 to implement the objective of the Government Programme of Prime Minister Sanna Marin’s Government to increase the impact of culture on wellbeing by increasing cooperation between different administrative branches. https://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-263-967-7 [accessed 15.8.2023].
[xx] https://www.hs.fi/kulttuuri/art-2000009665744.html [accessed 15.8.2023].
[xxi] Borowiecki K. J. & Navarrette, T. (2018). Fiscal and economic aspects of book consumption in the European Union. Journal of Cultural Economics, 42, 309–339. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10824-017-9307-z [accessed 15.8.2023].
[xxii] https://www.hs.fi/mielipide/art-2000009696645.html [accessed 15.8.2023].
[xxiii] E.g., Jakonen, O. & Sokka, S. (2022). Finnish cultural policy as public funding: Regime view across policy domains. Nordisk Kulturpolitisk Tidsskrift, 25(3), 293–313. https://doi.org/10.18261/nkt.25.3.9 [accessed 15.8.2023].
[xxiv] Globe Art Point is advocating cultural equity, diversity and inclusion in the arts and cultural sector in Finland. https://www.globeartpoint.fi/2023/06/28/statement-in-response-to-the-new-government-programme/ [accessed 15.8.2023].
[xxv] E.g., Throsby, D. (2008). The concentric circles model of the cultural industries. Cultural Trends, 17(3), 147–164. https://doi.org/10.1080/09548960802361951 [accessed 15.8.2023].
[xxvi] E.g., Røyseng, S. (2019). The social contract of artists in the era of cultural industries. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 25(2), 154–170. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2016.1229313 [accessed 15.8.2023].
Photo: Lauri Heikkinen, Prime Minister's Office