Study: Technological development is changing the Finnish audiovisual sector, but contract terms have not kept up with the development

News   2.10.2023  

Technological development has opened up new earning opportunities for Finnish audiovisual production companies and creators. However, the industry’s contract terms are causing dissatisfaction among both creators and production companies.

The study by the Center for Cultural Policy Research Cupore investigated the views of production companies and creators on the terms of contracts in the audiovisual sector and the effects of technological development on their earning potential.

Technological development has diversified the production, distribution and end-use of content in the audiovisual sector. New distribution channels and the entry of international streaming companies into the market have opened up new opportunities for growth and internationalisation for the Finnish production companies.

At the same time, contracts on the transfer of rights have become more complex, and rights are acquired for longer periods than before.

There is often a lack of satisfaction with the contract terms for the transfer of rights

The results show that although the use of audiovisual content and the number of potential distributors and financiers have increased, this has not always been clearly reflected in the remuneration received by creative workers and audiovisual production companies.

Creative workers’ experiences on unfair contract terms were related to the amount and form of remuneration as well as the extent and duration of the transfer of rights. Creators considered the main reasons for unfair contract terms to be the differences in the parties’ negotiating positions, negotiation skills and copyright knowledge. Production companies, on the other hand, attributed this to intensified competition between television companies and streaming services.

There are solutions to the problems

Based on the study, the equality of bargaining positions and the operation of the markets can be supported by different means.

“During the study, we mapped the development needs with both creative workers and representatives of audiovisual production companies. Based on this, nine parallel development proposals were defined”, say Project Manager Tiina Kautio and researcher Nathalie Lefever.

The study was published in Finnish on 30th of May 2023. An English summary is presented on p. 9–11 of the publication.

The key results of the study are now available in English in the form of a Fact Sheet.

Download the Fact Sheet in PDF format on Cupore’s website

Kautio, Tiina (2023). Contractual relations in the audiovisual sector’s changing operating environment. Cupore Fact Sheet 12. Center for Cultural Policy Research.

Further information:

Project Manager Tiina Kautio,, p. +358 50 4300658

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